Baker City Mining


Admittedly, the history of mining isn’t something I’ve spent a lot of time thinking about or researching. And then I happened to include a setting of mines in not one but two stories and dove into researching hard rock mining in the Baker City, Oregon, area at the end of the 1800s.

I knew before I started that there were many, many mines in the area from the 1880s through the 1890s and on into the new century. Dozens of little mining towns popped up on the horizon and just as quickly faded one the mines closed. 

From 1880 through 1899, Oregon produced more than $26 million dollars in gold and silver with more than $18 million of it coming from Baker, Grant and Union county (which are all in the Baker City region). 

To say mining was a big deal at the time is something of an understatement. It was a huge business.

Thankfully, the Baker County Library has an incredible digital library of thousands of old images. I found many that illustrated the mining business and aided my research more than I can even say. 

As a visual person, it was fantastic to look at these images, read the descriptions and picture how things would look at my fictional mines. 

Baker County Library, Baker City, Oregon

This advertisement was such a help to me because the illustration lets you look inside the various levels of the mill and see how they were built into the hills. 


Baker County Library, Baker City, Oregon

This is an image of the Eureka & Excelsior Mine mill building in the Cracker Creek District, Oregon. You can see how it’s built into the hill, quite similar to the illustration in the advertisement. 


Baker County Library, Baker City, Oregon

This image shows the vanner room at the Bonanaza Mine, which was one of the top producing mines during the mining heyday in the Baker City region. It was located four miles from Greenhorn City which straddled both the Baker and Grant county lines.

Vanning is a process of separating the material of value from that which is worthless. Typically, a powdered sample of orestuff is swirled with water on the blade of a shovel and then given a series of upward flicking motions. The heavier ore is tossed up through the water and appears as a crescent shaped patch at the top of the charge with the lighter material that is unusable below.  In the 19th century, the process was automated and used to separate ore on an industrial scale. The Frue Vanner was a widely-adopted machine, invented in 1874 by W.B. Frue in Canada. 

With a Frue vanner, a continuous rubber belt (usually 4 feet wide and about 27.5 feet long, shown in the center of this photo) passed over rollers to from the surface of an inclined plane. The orestuff was concentrate on in the belt and the belt traveled uphill from three to twelve feet per minute while being shaken anywhere from 180-200 times. Crushed orestuff from the stamps fed onto the belt. As it traveled uphill, it met small jets of water which gradually washed the gangue (the commercially valueless material in which ore is found) off the bottom of the belt. The heavier ore adhered to the belt as it went over the top roller and passed into a box containing water where the ore was deposited. To make this work, anywhere from three to six gallons of water per minute was required. One machine could treat approximately six tons per twenty-four hours of orestuff.


Baker County Library, Baker City, Oregon


This is a photo of the stamping room at the Golden Gate mine, also located near Greenhorn City. There are ten stamps shown here. The stamp is a large mechanical device used to crush ore and extract minerals. Repeatedly, the stamps and raised and dropped onto ore that is fed into the mill, until the coarse ore is reduced to a finer material that can be further processed. The number of stamps used depended on the size of the mill and the amount of ore being taken out of the mine.


Baker County Library, Baker City, Oregon

The Red Boy Mine (also located near Greenhorn City) boasted it’s own laboratory, at least in this 1902 photo. On-site labs were considered to be a strategic value to a mine. Among the work done there was testing and sampling to derive critical operational, metallurgical, and environmental data needed to make the most of mining and mineral processing production.


Baker County Library, Baker City, Oregon

This amazing photo (undated) was taken at the Bonanza Mine.  Five men are working in a tunnel wielding four-pound hammers that were called “single jacks” and steel drills. Note the candles on a wire stuck in cracks in the walls to provide light.  Total production at this mine from 1899-1904 was just shy of a million dollars. It was mostly a gold mine, although they did find some silver. Reports show total production from the mine totaled $1.75 million dollars. 


Baker County Library, Baker City, Oregon

And this awesome image is taken inside the superintendent’s cabin at the St. Anthony Mine in 1901.  One might assume the woman in the photo is the superintendent’s wife. Many of the mines refused to allow women in the camp and were called a “boar’s nest.” 

If you’d like to read more about mining in this region of Oregon, there’s a lot of detail in this digital report

And if you’d like to read about the adventures of my characters at the fictional mines that exist only in my head, you’ll find Graydon (Grady) Gaffney at the Lucky Larkspur Mine in Gift of Hope.


When his affections are spurned by the girl he plans to wed, Graydon Gaffney rides off in the swirling snow, determined to stay far away from fickle females. Then a voice in the storm draws him to a woman and her two sweet children. Despite his intentions to guard his emotions, all three members of the DeVille family threaten to capture his heart.

Giavanna DeVille holds the last frayed edges of her composure in a tenuous grasp. In a moment of desperation, she leaves her sleeping children in her cabin and ventures out into a storm to release her pent-up frustrations where no one can hear her cries. Much to her surprise, a man appears through the blinding snow. He gives her a shoulder to cry on and something even more precious. . . hope.

Can the two of them move beyond past heartaches to accept the gift of hope for their future?

You’ll also find the characters of my latest book Dumplings and Dynamite (releasing tomorrow!) at the Crescent Creek Mine, up in the hills out of Baker City. 

Widow Hollin Hughes doesn’t care how long it takes or the depths of deception required to discover how her husband really died. She’s determined to unearth the truth and unravel the mystery surrounding his death. Then a new dynamite man arrives at the mine and throws all her plans off kilter.

With a smile that makes females of any age swoon, Deputy Seth Harter can charm his way into or out of almost anything. When he’s sent undercover to Crescent Creek Mine, even the cranky cook seems entirely immune to his rugged appeal, making him wonder if he’s losing his touch. Eager to get to the bottom of a series of unexplained deaths, Seth counts on catching the criminals. He just didn’t anticipate a tempestuous woman claiming his heart in the process.

Brimming with humor, tidbits from history, and a sweet, unexpected love, don’t miss out on a heartwarming romance packed with adventure.

And here’s a little excerpt from the story:

A flash of pity swept through him for the baby’s mother who lost her husband and was now working for the contemptible Eustace Gilford. He had no doubt the woman had to rise in the wee hours of the morning to be able to cook a big breakfast for a camp full of miners. It had to be challenging to cook and care for such a newly-born child.

Mrs. Parrish hurried back into the kitchen, saw him holding the baby, and her pale skin blanched white.

“What are you doing?” she asked in a harsh, quiet tone. She moved across the room and took the baby from him with such haste, he had no idea how she’d managed to reach him in so few steps. He couldn’t be certain, but he thought maybe she’d forgotten about her limp.

“I hoped if I held her, she’d stop crying. It worked,” he said, shoving his hands in his pockets, although he moved a step closer to the widow. “What’s her name?”


“I’ve never met anyone named Keeva. Is it a family name?” he asked.

The woman merely nodded. “It was her great-grandmother’s name.”

“Then I’m sure she’d be proud to have a beautiful little granddaughter to share it with.”

The woman looked at him over her shoulder with an uncertain glare, as though she couldn’t quite figure him out, before she turned back to the baby. “Breakfast is on the table. The men will be in soon. If you want something to eat, you best get out there. If Mr. Gilford didn’t mention it, the men pack their own lunches from the food on the tables near the door.”

“He did say something about that. Thank you, Mrs. Parrish.” Seth tipped his head to her then made his way to the dining room where men began trickling inside.

Eustace directed Seth to a chair at the far end of the long table. When everyone was seated, he pointed to Seth. “Meet our newest employee, Seth Harter. He’ll be drilling and blasting.”

Mrs. Parrish nearly dropped the pot of coffee she carried at this announcement but quickly recovered. Seth wondered how hard he’d have to work to charm the truth out of her. In spite of her appearance, something about her made him look forward to trying.

Although Dumplings and Dynamite releases tomorrow, you can pre-order it today!

If you were a miner back in the 1800s, what kind of mineral would you have been searching for? Gold? Silver? Quartz? Copper? Lead? Something with a little more sparkle? 

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After spending her formative years on a farm in Eastern Oregon, hopeless romantic Shanna Hatfield turns her rural experiences into sweet historical and contemporary romances filled with sarcasm, humor, and hunky western heroes.
When this USA Today bestselling author isn’t writing or covertly hiding decadent chocolate from the other occupants of her home, Shanna hangs out with her beloved husband, Captain Cavedweller.

42 thoughts on “Baker City Mining”

  1. Good morning Shanna- WOW!! I loved this trip into history, you write such descriptive scenes that it’s easy to imagine just what the mine camp was like.
    This is your best historical book I Have ever tread. I loved it. Perfect timing when I needed a huge distraction. My Papa Lucas mined copper in Bisbee, AZ., where he met my Granny Lucas., both from Texas, her brothers worked the mine with my papa and when she went for a visit she stole his heart. As they say.. The rest is history.
    Thank you for always delivering the Best books. Love you dearly.

  2. Hi, Shanna. This is a great blog. Thank you for sharing all of the photos and your research. I am enjoying your Gifts of Christmas series. Such great stories. And I’m looking forward to reading your Dumplings and Dynamite.

  3. I loved the pictures, thanks for sharing. Best of luck with your release tomorrow!

    Hmmm mining, I’m not sure what I’d mine for I suppose I would just mine for what was most abundant in the area. My first thought was copper though and then diamonds.

    I hope your having a great 2020!

  4. What a fascinating article. I don’t think I would be cut out for being a miner, but if I had to, I would just mine for what ever was in the area.

    • Oh, if you ever find yourself in eastern Oregon, make sure you stop by. The museum across the street from the park is a must and the National Historic Oregon Trail Interpretive Center is fabulous. Look around the Geyser Grand Hotel, too!

  5. Interesting post, I think I would mine for gold or diamonds if I was a miner back then. Your book sounds fantastic.

  6. oh what a wonderful post. i love those photos. how fun to research. my son is so into research with history. i think i would like to mine silver or quartz

  7. I would definitely not want to be in a mine.

    I did learn something new. My birthstone is a sapphire and you mentioned a green sapphire in the book. Having received birthday gifts, I just assumed they were all blue.

    • Oh, that is neat your birthstone is a sapphire. The blue are such a gorgeous stone! And yes, sapphires can come in different colors. I have a beautiful pink sapphire that Captain Cavedweller gave me for an anniversary gift.
      Thank you so much for stopping in today! <3

  8. The Baker City area is such a beautiful place. What a great history lesson you gave us and the pictures add so much to understanding how the process worked. I would never make a good miner of anything, especially in an underground mine. I’ve been to the Oregon Trail Interpretive Center but missed the local museum. Something to look for the next time I get back that way.

    • Hi Alice,
      So fun you’ve been in the area. Definitely check out the other museum. It used to be a natatorium prior to WWII. Some really fun displays there.
      And thank you for stopping in today. I don’t think I would have survived more than a day or two of mining underground before I looked for another means of employment. 🙂

  9. I’d have been looking for gold or silver! What an interesting article, too!! Loved the pics showing everything!

  10. I don’t know if I would want to work in a mine, my husband used to work in a Uranium mine in NM in 1979 and it was pretty scary and dangerous, so no matter how much money I would make I would not work in a mine. I’m glad my husband got another job.

  11. What a packed post. Interesting details about mining operations. Much of it seems rather advanced for the time, even though it was during the industrial revolution. It is more a case of how remote the area was to have had these large and “modern” facilities. Both books listed sound like good reads, with humor, questions, and compassion.
    If I had been mining in the 1800’s, it would likely have been for gold. At the time, it was the “easiest” and most valuable thing out there. Today I would likely be looking for gems.

    • Hi Patricia,
      Glad you could pop by today!
      Gold was certainly the biggest draw back then and I think searching for gems today would be great fun.
      I was amazed at their “technology” back then. Much more advanced than I originally thought.
      Wishing you a happy new year!

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