Tag: Kansas history

Homesteading on the Prairie

 

Homesteading on the Prairie

By Kathryn Albright
Tales of Courage & Hope

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I have scurried down many rabbit holes in my research so that my books set in western Kansas are historically accurate. Rivers, native fish, agriculture, Native Americans, sod houses, native birds and wildlife, cattle drives and cattle breeding are a handful of these “holes.” The internet is a big help in fact-finding, but my-oh-my do I get lost at times and surface just before it is time to prepare supper for my family!

For my next book in the Oak Grove Series, I’ve had to do some research into homesteading on the prairie.

The early inhabitants of Oak Grove, a fictional town set along the Smoky Hill River, lived in tents made from the canvas of their prairie schooners, but with the Kansas-Pacific Railroad now established all the way to Denver (1878), the small town was growing and wooden structures were springing up as the train brought supplies from the east and wood from the Rocky Mountains. The town prospered with the nearby stockyards that shipped cattle (up from the drives in Texas) to the miners in Colorado and to Chicago.

Railroad land grant Kansas

Homestead Act of 1862

However, some who lived out of town on 160 acres of their own, were farmers who’d come west with nothing but a dream to take advantage of the government’s Homestead Act of 1862. Requirements to own a plot of land by this means included:

  1. Must be at least 21 years of age.
  2. Must be a citizen or an immigrant with the intention of becoming a citizen.
  3. Must pay a filing fee (usually at the Land Office in the nearest town where it was also determined that no one else had claimed that particular parcel of land.)
  4. Must farm the land and live on it for five years before gaining the official deed to the property.
  5. Must build a home within six months. (Requirements in some states included the minimum dimensions of the home, one glass window, and also building a well.)

Homesteading on the Prairie

On the open prairie, it seemed that all weather was extreme. On arriving, many of the “sod busters” began by building a small dugout into the side of hill, just to escape the relentless wind, sun, snow and rain. Since there were no trees or large stones for construction material, the settlers would use their mules, oxen, or horses, and a special plow to cut rectangles of sod, 18” x 24” (weight = 50 pounds) to use as “bricks” for their home. These would be set so that the roots could grow and intermingle into the next row of sod, creating a very strong wall.

The base of a soddie was wide and the walls would then taper inward slightly to allow for settling. Most had a dirt floor, but later a puncheon or plank flooring might be used. On the inside, the walls would be plastered with mud to create a smooth appearance. Open windows were covered with oil cloth. A fireplace for cooking would take up one wall of the house.

The roof caused the most concern in the building process. Wooden poles, laid across the rim of the sod house, were then overlaid with bundles of brush. On top of the brush, more sod blocks were placed. Dirt clods dropping form the roof was a problem as well as other insects and an occasional snake. If the sod became too wet after a hard rain it could cave in. Every few years, depending on the severity of the weather, the roof would have to be replaced. Structures had one to three rooms and were surprisingly very snug and warm in the winter and cool in the summer.

Homesteading on the Prairie

With all the difficulties they had to face, the years of too much or too little rain for their crops, less than 50 percent of homesteaders achieved the five-year requirement and acquired the deed to their land. Those who did not, went back home or traveled further west. Although most homesteaders consisted of a husband and wife and often children, a single woman or widow could also homestead and work to own the land. Once source reported that single and widowed women made up to 12 percent of the men and women homesteading in the Rocky Mountain area.

From 1862 to 1900 over 600,000 claims to homestead were filed. The Homestead Act ended in 1976 for the contiguous 48 states and in 1986 for Alaska.

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Learning these facts helped me form the basis of my fictional character’s life on the prairie. I was worried that the land would not be hers after her husband died, but was gratified to know she could hold on to it and it would be there for her son, and her son’s son if he chose that same life. That is why she fights for it so fiercely. The Prairie Doctor’s Bride, a western historical romance, won’t be available for a few more months, but it is available for pre-order here ~ [  Amazon  ]

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I doubt that I would have lasted six months living in a sod house! The bugs falling from the roof would have been too much for me! What, for you, would have been the most difficult part of life in a soddie?

Comment to be entered into a drawing to receive my latest release ~ Mail-Order Brides of Oak Grove!

Homesteading on the Prairie

 

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Kathryn’s Winner!

Mail Order Brides of Oak GroveTwin sisters say ‘I do’ in the Old West!

Congratulations to Elaine Hathaway!

Your name was drawn ‘from my Stetson’ (Random.org).

Contact me at Kathryn at kathrynalbright dot com
and let me know your address so that I can send you a copy of

MAIL-ORDER BRIDES OF OAK GROVE!

Thank you everyone for stopping by and chatting with me yesterday! And thank you all for your wonderful name suggestions for the little pup in my next story.

RESEARCHING the KANSAS of the 1870s

 

Kathryn Albright board

Researching – Kansas

How is that for a title of a post? I’m not sure it is very catchy.
We’ll have a little fun at the end. Promise!

I often want to include more history than necessary in my stories. (I find it fascinating!) My editor will put a ‘?’ by a sentence to indicate ‘What has this got to do with the story?’ when I include too much research. She reminds me that I am writing a historical romance—with the emphasis on the romance—and not a straight historical novel!

One thing that I needed to know for my new series set in Kansas was the Native American situation and whether it was realistic to have any Indian/Settler skirmishes at the time that my stories take place which is 1878-1880. By this time, Kansas was already a state in the Union. Statehood happened in 1861 and the story of how it came to be is an entire post in itself!

Kansas Seal 1861

Here is short timeline of things going on in 1870’s Kansas. I strive for historical accuracy and often information like this inspires my plotting. Some things I needed to know:

1. Whether Native American’s lived in the area and if they were friendly or otherwise.
2. When the train service began for shipping cattle to markets in the east.
3. The prevailing attitude about alcoholic beverages. (Mail-Order Brides of Oak Grove, the kick-off book to this
series and available now, touches on the subject of alcohol and the twin heroines that run into trouble with their medicinal tonic and takes place in 1879.)

The following list is not exhaustive by any means, but it was pertinent to my new series–

1870 – The Kansas Pacific Railroad extends from Kansas City to Denver.
1871 – April 15 — ‘Wild Bill’ Hickok became the marshal of Abilene.
1872 – June 17 — Hoover’s Bar established in a tent shop five miles west of Fort Dodge.
It was the founding business of Dodge City. Up to then the town had been dry.
Ellsworth became the northern shipping point of the Texas cattle trail. (Succeeding Abilene.)
The Santa Fe Railroad was completed to the Colorado border and succeeded the Santa Fe
Trail as the main transportation route to the southwest.
1873 – The Kaw Indians were removed from their reservation in Morris County to Oklahoma
Territory.
Grasshopper plague from the Rocky Mountain Locust devastated the corn crop.
Four Kansas railroads shipped 122,914 head of Texas cattle in eight months.
1874 – Mennonites from Russia introduce Turkey Red wheat to Kansas.
1875 – Most of the buffalo in the state have been destroyed.
1876 – Wyatt Earp moved to Dodge City.
1878 – Cheyenne raid in Northwestern, Kansas. In Oklahoma Indian Territory, the Northern
Cheyenne left their reservation and headed north to their lands in Yellowstone. They were
stopped in Northwestern Kansas at Ladder Creek (known as Beaver Creek today.)
The last Indian raid in Kansas occurred in this year.
1879 – Prohibition is at the forefront of the Kansas legislature.
1880 – Kansas became the first state to pass an amendment prohibiting all alcoholic beverages.

The decade of the 1870’s went a long way in changing Kansas from a windswept open prairie to America’s agricultural heartland. The tranquil appearance of the vast open spaces belies the state’s rough and sometimes bloody path to the Kansas of today. Until I started delving into its history, I knew little about this fascinating state and the people that lived there.

OkaDog namey –so now for the fun part 🙂

I’ve started on the last book in the series (I think. It’s never a definite :-0) and I need a name for this cutie pie. I believe this little scruffy pup is going to be a miss not a mister. For a chance at a copy of my latest book, please suggest a name! That’s all there is to it.

NAME THIS PUPPY!

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